glibc has a pretty nice function called crypt_r(3), which is nothing
more than crypt(3), but thread-safe. It accomplishes this by introducing
a 'struct crypt_data' structure that contains a buffer that is large
enough to hold the resulting string.
Let's go ahead and also add this function. It would be a shame if a
useful function like this wouldn't be usable in multithreaded apps.
Refactor crypt.c and all of the backends to no longer declare static
arrays, but write their output in a provided buffer.
There is no need to do any buffer length computation here, as we'll just
need to ensure that 'struct crypt_data' is large enough, which it is.
_PASSWORD_LEN is defined to 128 bytes, but in this case I'm picking 256,
as this is going to be part of the actual ABI.