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Translate the bsdl-gpl article in Italian

Authored by salvadore on Feb 10 2020, 8:54 AM.



Translate the bsdl-gpl article in Italian

Suggestion for commit message:

it_IT/articles/bsdl-gpl: Add Italian translation

Submitted by:  Lorenzo Salvadore <>
Reviewed by: ???
Obtained from:
Differential Revision:
Test Plan

The resulting document is here.
// This URL was generated by our Jenkins and will be gone in 30 days.

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rD FreeBSD doc repository - subversion
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dbaio requested changes to this revision.Feb 10 2020, 11:37 PM

In the testing part I like to include a URL for proofreading, like this:

The resulting document is here.
// This URL was generated by our Jenkins and will be gone in 30 days.

@madpilot, will be nice if you can review and commit this translation.

There aren't articles in the Italian directory in the Doc tree, so will be necessary more things in this patch to be ready for commit.

As @madpilot doesn't have doc commit bit (the same happens with me in pt_BR), a doc committer needs to review/approve this patch so he can proceed with the commit, and that part will be necessary.

Lorenzo, I wouldn't ask this for any translator, but you are part of the project and maybe soon you will commit your patches by yourself. =)

This revision now requires changes to proceed.Feb 10 2020, 11:37 PM

I updated the test plan as you suggested.

If you are interested in me getting a commit bit, you might like to talk with @trasz (he said something about giving a commit bit to @debdrup and me so that we could work on quarterly status reports indipendently) and with @gerald (he is interested in giving me a ports commit bit; not directly related with docs, but might help).

I've made a few comments on translation details.

I've added explanations in English for people reading this who may not know Italian, or knowing it only from school study but having little practice on how the language is actually used by native speakers.

Some parts were not translated, I've marked most of them.

26 ↗(On Diff #68050)

The second part reads like a literal translation from English to a phrase which sounds "artificial" in Italian. A minor change could fix that.

I'd like to suggest something like this:

Esso può anche essere interpretato come un'introduzione e un riassunto comparativo tra le licenze Open Source BSD e GPL

32 ↗(On Diff #68050)

The "vaghe" word looks really out of place, it is rarely used like that common spoken or written Italian. I'd suggest replacing it with "informali".

Another problem is the word hardware being repeated so often. While I understand the English source has the same problem, Italian language grammar really frowns on repetitions.

In the same phrase the word "compagnie" is used, but it's really a false friend for "companies", the correct translation of companies in Italian is "aziende".

To avoid some repetition it could be rendered like this:

...sviluppavano molto del software che le aziende di hardware informatico vendevano incluso nelle loro offerte[1] .

[1] the word hardware in this case can be left out, it can be inferred from context, hardware companies sell hardware anyway

34 ↗(On Diff #68050)

I'd replace "interrompere" with "prevenire" or "impedire".

36 ↗(On Diff #68050)

"rovinare" by itself here sounds really bad. I'd suggest "mandare in rovina" (which is a set phrase in Italian), or the while phrase could be reworded like this:

Nel 1965 il Dipartimento di Giustizia degli Stati Uniti accusò IBM di concorrenza sleale offrendo software gratuito

46 ↗(On Diff #68050)

A personal note not on the translation but on the original content. I have read this information about the PDP-11" being inexpensive in various places. But I think it should be clearly stated that it was "relatively inexpensive" at the time.

I don't have definitive data, but from some reading on the internet in the 70s in the US a new car would cost around 6000-7000 USD, and the PDP-11 was introduced at 20.000 US, which was the cost of a small apartment. That would be very very expensive for a basic computer system by today standards!

48 ↗(On Diff #68050)

"insegno" like could be misunderstood. I'd reword it a little:

nel 1975 ed tenne corsi sul kernel insegnandolo riga per riga

62 ↗(On Diff #68050)

This part is not translated.

64 ↗(On Diff #68050)

PC BSD -> BSD per PC

69 ↗(On Diff #68050)

I'm proposing this transaltion:

A metà anni 90, la Novell comprò i diritti commerciali su Unix dalla AT&T e fu raggiunto un accordo (allora segreto) per concludere la causa. l'USB interruppe il supporto per BSD poco tempo dopo.

72 ↗(On Diff #68050)

Lo stato attuale di FreeBSD e delle licenze BSD

74 ↗(On Diff #68050)

From a legal standpoint the "querela" is a penal law institution, while here we're talking about civil law, so the correct phrase is "non è possibile fare causa a nessuno"

76 ↗(On Diff #68050)

Common wording is "un oggetto di dominio pubblico"

85 ↗(On Diff #68050)

"Casalinghi" does not look right here, while it is a literal translation of "in house". AFAIK the correct translation conveying the same meaning is "prodotti internamente".

Casalingo in Italian conveys an private home meaning with "casalinga" being a homewife caring for the house and usually not having her own job. the word "casalinghi" (plural form) is also used to mean small home appliances.

105 ↗(On Diff #68050)

ma spesso con lo svantaggio che essi funzioneranno solo per versioni specifiche del kernel Linux.

"particolari" is the Italian translation of "peculiar", being a false friend for "particular"

115 ↗(On Diff #68050)

il kernel Linux veniva sviluppato come un clone di Unix per PC

Not sure how to explain this in English, but to convey the idea that linux is a unix lookalike running on the PC the phrase needs to be constructed in this way.

130 ↗(On Diff #68050)

rilasciato/a -> pubblicato/a

(as in made available to the general public)

there also a typo: mantere -> mantenere

137 ↗(On Diff #68050)

While I agree with keeping the English term "Orphaning" maybe it could be a good idea to add a translation for that between parentheses, like (letteralmente rendere orfano".

I'd replace "compagnie" with "aziende" here too.

139 ↗(On Diff #68050)

While this is not wrong I think it would be better like this:

La GPL tenta di impedire l'orphaning spezzando il legame con la proprietà intellettuale privata.

150 ↗(On Diff #68050)

sparsa -> distribuita

(this is also a false friend)

152 ↗(On Diff #68050)

lo fa più velocemente dei proprietari originali

(adverb form required here)

165 ↗(On Diff #68050)

typo: accrese -> accresce

169 ↗(On Diff #68050)

I Sistemi in tempo reale...

(I can't recall the exact grammatical rule, but depending in the construction of the phrase the impersonal article is required here, If I recall correctly from school it's due to "real time systems" not being the subject in an active construction, like "real time systems do this and this" but real time systems being a passive predicate begin subject to something from other active agents)

173 ↗(On Diff #68050)

... trasferimento tecnologico ed è solitamente abbastanza difficile anche nelle migliori delle circostanze

(anche, meaning "even in" in this context, is required to convey the idea that getting the result is actually difficult "even in" the best circumstances)

206 ↗(On Diff #68050)

Another comment not strictly related with translation or wording.

The document is quite US centric, here it lists only US insitutions.

Italy has it's own equivalents (CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, National research Council) is quite similar to NSF for example). Since translating is not a simple mechanical thing but also a "cultural" operation, shouldn't we also list some Italian institutions? Also to help educating users better, perhaps on what they should expect by their own state agencies.

217 ↗(On Diff #68050)


227 ↗(On Diff #68050)


229 ↗(On Diff #68050)

al di fuori dell'azienda è un beneficio economico trasferibile

"economico" is a qualitative adjective and Italian grammar requires them to follow the word they qualify, Also there are exceptions but they don't apply here. Also sometimes the same adjective changes meaning of the phrase depending on it's position, for example "alcuni amici vecchi" means "some friends who are old people", while "alcuni vecchi amici" means "some friends I have known for a long time (whatever their age)". Italian is complicated! :)

249 ↗(On Diff #68050)

Riferimenti bibliografici

Thanks @madpilot for all the useful comments. I have followed all of them almost exactly, with very few exceptions.
For example, I choosed "riassunto comparativo delle licenze" instead of "riassunto comparativo tra le licenze" considering that you normaly make "un riassunto di qualcosa" or "un paragone o una comparazione tra due cose" and thus the choice was between "riassunto comparativo di" or "paragone riassuntivo tra".
About "economico beneficio trasferibile" -> "beneficio economico trasferibile" I did not accept the suggestion because I understood that my original translation was so bad that it was misleading, so I correct it with "beneficio trasferibile poco costoso" (the original is "cheap protable benefit").
I also corrected the "casalinghi" place by accepting the suggestion ("sistemi proprietari"), but also correcting the meaning of the translation: in the original text the systems were home made and became proprietary while in my precedent translation it was the opposite... Now the right direction has been restored.
About the comment on the Italian research center CNR, I maintained the US examples by definining them as americans and I added the CNR specifying it as an Italian example.

The untranslated parts were due almost all to some kind of bug in the Makefile: the xml was indeed generated from the .po through "make tran". However there was also a missing translation from the .po due to Weblate (I did create the string "Riferimenti bibliografici", but it appeared empty in the .po).
Unless I forgot something, everything should be fixed both in the xml and in the .po.

Sorry, I had forgotten to mark the comments as done (I have used phabricator only a few times, I still need to get more familiar with it).

I noticed only one small thing I did not notice before, apart from that it all looks fine.

Next step is finding a doc committer who can approve this, who could I ask to?

15 ↗(On Diff #68341)

While I agree that FreeBSD project is a proper name, shouldn't it be translated anyway to "Progetto FreeBSD" here?

I addressed last comment from madpilot.
I also recreated the diff using the --show-copies-as-adds option: without it the content of Makefile, copied fron en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/Makefile was not visible.

As @madpilot doesn't have doc commit bit (the same happens with me in pt_BR), a doc committer needs to review/approve this patch so he can proceed with the commit, and that part will be necessary.

Next step is finding a doc committer who can approve this, who could I ask to?

I do not know, but I was recently given a ports commit bit: if you lack time I can commit it too, with a doc committer approval and my mentor (@gerald) approval.

Great work!

If you'd be able to commit this yourself it would be great!

I added ale as a reviewer since he is a doc committer and worked on the Italian documentation according to svn logs. Maybe he can approve this translation.

Added another pair of committers who committed in the past to Italian documentation.

I am adding my approval as Lorenzo's mentor (on the ports side), which is formally required - leaving the actual review into the hands of the (Italian speaking) doc committers here.

This revision was not accepted when it landed; it landed in state Needs Review.Mar 24 2020, 10:33 PM
This revision was automatically updated to reflect the committed changes.