diff --git a/handbook/porting.sgml b/handbook/porting.sgml index 319d4fb162..525c59f42d 100644 --- a/handbook/porting.sgml +++ b/handbook/porting.sgml @@ -1,2635 +1,2635 @@ - + Making a port yourself

Contributed by &a.jkh;, &a.gpalmer;, &a.asami;, &a.obrien; and &a.hoek;.28 August 1996.

So, now you are interested in making your own port? Great! What follows are some guidelines for creating a new port for FreeBSD. The bulk of the work is done by /usr/share/mk/bsd.port.mk, which all port Makefiles include. Please refer to that file for more details on the inner workings of the ports collection. Even if you don't hack Makefiles daily, it is well commented, and you will still gain much knowledge from it.

Note: Only a fraction of the overridable variables (${..}) are mentioned in this document. Most (if not all) are documented at the start of bsd.port.mk. This file uses a non-standard tab setting. Emacs and Vim should recognize the setting on loading the file. vi or ex can be set to using the correct value by typing `:set tabstop=4' once the file has been loaded. Quick Porting

This section tells you how to do a quick port. In many cases, it is not enough, but we will see.

First, get the original tarball and put it into ${DISTDIR}, which defaults to /usr/ports/distfiles.

Note: The following assumes that the software compiled out-of-the-box, i.e., there was absolutely no change required for the port to work on your FreeBSD box. If you needed to change something, you will have to refer to the next section too. Writing the Makefile

The minimal Makefile would look something like this: # New ports collection makefile for: oneko # Version required: 1.1b # Date created: 5 December 1994 # Whom: asami # # $Id$ # DISTNAME= oneko-1.1b CATEGORIES= games MASTER_SITES= ftp://ftp.cs.columbia.edu/archives/X11R5/contrib/ MAINTAINER= asami@FreeBSD.ORG MAN1= oneko.1 MANCOMPRESSED= yes USE_IMAKE= yes .include

See if you can figure it out. Do not worry about the contents of the $Id$ line, it will be filled in automatically by CVS when the port is imported to our main ports tree. You can find a more detailed example in the section. Writing the description files

There are three description files that are required for any port, whether they actually package or not. They are COMMENT, DESCR, and PLIST, and reside in the pkg subdirectory. COMMENT

This is the one-line description of the port. Please do not include the package name (or version number of the software) in the comment. Here is an example: A cat chasing a mouse all over the screen. DESCR

This is a longer description of the port. One to a few paragraphs concisely explaining what the port does is sufficient. This is not a manual or an in-depth description on how to use or compile the port! Please be careful if you are copying from the README or manpage; too often they are not a concise description of the port or are in an awkward format (e.g. manpages have justified spacing). If the ported software has an official WWW homepage, you should list it here.

It is recommended that you sign the name at the end of this file, as in: This is a port of oneko, in which a cat chases a poor mouse all over the screen. : (etc.) http://www.oneko.org/ - Satoshi asami@cs.berkeley.edu PLIST

This file lists all the files installed by the port. It is also called the `packing list' because the package is generated by packing the files listed here. The pathnames are relative to the installation prefix (usually /usr/local or /usr/X11R6). If you are using the Here is a small example: bin/oneko lib/X11/app-defaults/Oneko lib/X11/oneko/cat1.xpm lib/X11/oneko/cat2.xpm lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm @dirrm lib/X11/oneko

Refer to the pkg_create(1) man page for details on the packing list. Note that you should list all the files, but not the name directories, in the list. Also, if the port creates directories for itself during installation, make sure to add It is recommended you keep all the filenames in this file sorted alphabetically. It will make verifying the changes when you upgrade the port much easier. Creating the checksum file

Just type `make makesum'. The ports make rules will automatically generate the file files/md5. Testing the port

You should make sure that the port rules do exactly what you want it to do, including packaging up the port. These are the important points you need to verify: your port can be installed multiple times using the your port after itself upon deinstall

The recommended ordering of tests is: make install make package make deinstall pkg_add `make package-name` make deinstall make reinstall make package Make sure there aren't any warnings issued in any of the Checking your port with portlint

Please use portlint to see if your port conforms to our guidelines. The program is part of the ports collection. In particular, you may want to check if the is in the right shape and the is named appropriately. Submitting the port

First, make sure you have read the section.

Now that you are happy with your port, the only thing remaining is to put it in the main FreeBSD ports tree and make everybody else happy about it too. We do not need your work/ directory or the pkgname.tgz package, so delete them now. Next, simply include the output of `shar `find port_dir`' in a bug report and send it with the send-pr(1) program (see for more information about send-pr). If the uncompressed port is larger than 20KB, you should compress it into a tarfile and use uuencode(1) before including it in the bug report (uuencoded tarfiles are acceptable even if the report is smaller than 20KB but are not preferred). Be sure to classify the bug report as category `ports' and class `change-request'. (Do not mark the report `confidential'!)

One more time, do not include the original source distfile, the work/ directory, or the package you built with `make package'!

Note: in the past, we asked you to upload new port submissions in our ftp site (:<

We will look at your port, get back to you if necessary, and put it in the tree. Your name will also appear in the list of `Additional FreeBSD contributors' on the FreeBSD Handbook and other files. Isn't that great?!? :) Slow Porting

Ok, so it was not that simple, and the port required some modifications to get it to work. In this section, we will explain, step by step, how to modify it to get it to work with the ports paradigm. How things work

First, this is the sequence of events which occurs when the user first types `make' in your port's directory, and you may find that having bsd.port.mk in another window while you read this really helps to understand it.

But do not worry if you do not really understand what bsd.port.mk is doing, not many people do... :> The fetch target is run. The fetch target is responsible for making sure that the tarball exists locally in ${DISTDIR}. If fetch cannot find the required files in ${DISTDIR} it will look up the URL ${MASTER_SITES}, which is set in the Makefile, as well as our main ftp site at , where we put sanctioned distfiles as backup. It will then attempt to fetch the named distribution file with ${FETCH}, assuming that the requesting site has direct access to the Internet. If that succeeds, it will save the file in ${DISTDIR} for future use and proceed. The extract target is run. It looks for your port's distribution file (typically a gzip'd tarball) in ${DISTDIR} and unpacks it into a temporary subdirectory specified by ${WRKDIR} (defaults to work). The patch target is run. First, any patches defined in ${PATCHFILES} are applied. Second, if any patches are found in ${PATCHDIR} (defaults to the patches subdirectory), they are applied at this time in alphabetical order. The configure target is run. This can do any one of many different things. If it exists, scripts/configure is run. If ${HAS_CONFIGURE} or ${GNU_CONFIGURE} is set, ${WRKSRC}/configure is run. If ${USE_IMAKE} is set, ${XMKMF} (default: `xmkmf -a') is run. The build target is run. This is responsible for descending into the port's private working directory (${WRKSRC}) and building it. If ${USE_GMAKE} is set, GNU make will be used, otherwise the system make will be used.

The above are the default actions. In addition, you can define targets `pre-<something>' or `post-<something>', or put scripts with those names, in the scripts subdirectory, and they will be run before or after the default actions are done.

For example, if you have a post-extract target defined in your Makefile, and a file pre-build in the scripts subdirectory, the post-extract target will be called after the regular extraction actions, and the pre-build script will be executed before the default build rules are done. It is recommended that you use Makefile targets if the actions are simple enough, because it will be easier for someone to figure out what kind of non-default action the port requires.

The default actions are done by the bsd.port.mk targets `do-<something>'. For example, the commands to extract a port are in the target `do-extract'. If you are not happy with the default target, you can fix it by redefining the `do-<something>' target in your Makefile.

Note that the `main' targets (e.g., extract, configure, etc.) do nothing more than make sure all the stages up to that one are completed and call the real targets or scripts, and they are not intended to be changed. If you want to fix the extraction, fix do-extract, but never ever touch extract!

Now that you understand what goes on when the user types `make', let us go through the recommended steps to create the perfect port. Getting the original sources

Get the original sources (normally) as a compressed tarball (<foo>.tar.gz or <foo>.tar.Z) and copy it into ${DISTDIR}. Always use mainstream sources when and where you can.

If you cannot find a ftp/http site that is well-connected to the net, or can only find sites that have irritatingly non-standard formats, you might want to put a copy on a reliable ftp or http server that you control (e.g., your home page). Make sure you set MASTER_SITES to reflect your choice.

If you cannot find somewhere convenient and reliable to put the distfile (note that if you are a FreeBSD committer, you can just put it in the public_html directory on freefall), we can `house' it ourselves by putting it on ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/ as the last resort. Please refer to this location as ${MASTER_SITE_LOCAL}. Send mail to the &a.ports if you are not sure what to do.

If your port's distfile changes all the time for no good reason, consider putting the distfile in your home page and listing it as the first MASTER_SITES. This will prevent users from getting `checksum mismatch' errors, and also reduce the workload of maintainers of our ftp site. Also, if there is only one master site for the port, it is recommended that you house a backup at your site and list it as the second MASTER_SITES.

If your port requires some additional `patches' that are available on the Internet, fetch them too and put them in ${DISTDIR}. Do not worry if they come from a site other than where you got the main source tarball, we have a way to handle these situations (see the description of below). Modifying the port

Unpack a copy of the tarball in a private directory and make whatever changes are necessary to get the port to compile properly under the current version of FreeBSD. Keep careful track of everything you do, as you will be automating the process shortly. Everything, including the deletion, addition or modification of files should be doable using an automated script or patch file when your port is finished.

If your port requires significant user interaction/customization to compile or install, you should take a look at one of Larry Wall's classic Configure scripts and perhaps do something similar yourself. The goal of the new ports collection is to make each port as `plug-and-play' as possible for the end-user while using a minimum of disk space.

Note: Unless explicitly stated, patch files, scripts, and other files you have created and contributed to the FreeBSD ports collection are assumed to be covered by the standard BSD copyright conditions. Patching

In the preparation of the port, files that have been added or changed can be picked up with a recursive diff for later feeding to patch. Each set of patches you wish to apply should be collected into a file named `patch-<xx>' where <xx> denotes the sequence in which the patches will be applied -- these are done in alphabetical order, thus `aa' first, `ab' second and so on. These files should be stored in ${PATCHDIR}, from where they will be automatically applied. All patches should be relative to ${WRKSRC} (generally the directory your port's tarball unpacks itself into, that being where the build is done). To make fixes and upgrades easier, you should avoid having more than one patch fix the same file (e.g., patch-aa and patch-ab both changing ${WRKSRC}/foobar.c). Configuring

Include any additional customization commands to your configure script and save it in the `scripts' subdirectory. As mentioned above, you can also do this as Makefile targets and/or scripts with the name pre-configure or post-configure. Handling user input

If your port requires user input to build, configure or install, then set IS_INTERACTIVE in your Makefile. This will allow `overnight builds' to skip your port if the user sets the variable BATCH in his environment (and if the user sets the variable INTERACTIVE, then only those ports requiring interaction are built).

It is also recommended that if there are reasonable default answers to the questions, you check the Configuring the Makefile

Configuring the Makefile is pretty simple, and again we suggest that you look at existing examples before starting. Also, there is a in this handbook, so take a look and please follow the ordering of variables and sections in that template to make your port easier for others to read.

Now, consider the following problems in sequence as you design your new Makefile: The original source

Does it live in ${DISTDIR} as a standard gzip'd tarball? If so, you can go on to the next step. If not, you should look at overriding any of the ${EXTRACT_CMD}, ${EXTRACT_BEFORE_ARGS}, ${EXTRACT_AFTER_ARGS}, ${EXTRACT_SUFX}, or ${DISTFILES} variables, depending on how alien a format your port's distribution file is. (The most common case is `EXTRACT_SUFX=.tar.Z', when the tarball is condensed by regular compress, not gzip.)

In the worst case, you can simply create your own `do-extract' target to override the default, though this should be rarely, if ever, necessary. DISTNAME

You should set ${DISTNAME} to be the base name of your port. The default rules expect the distribution file list (${DISTFILES}) to be named ${DISTNAME}${EXTRACT_SUFX} which, if it is a normal tarball, is going to be something like: foozolix-1.0.tar.gz for a setting of `DISTNAME=foozolix-1.0'. The default rules also expect the tarball(s) to extract into a subdirectory called work/${DISTNAME}, e.g. work/foozolix-1.0/ All this behavior can be overridden, of course; it simply represents the most common time-saving defaults. For a port requiring multiple distribution files, simply set ${DISTFILES} explicitly. If only a subset of ${DISTFILES} are actual extractable archives, then set them up in ${EXTRACT_ONLY}, which will override the ${DISTFILES} list when it comes to extraction, and the rest will be just left in ${DISTDIR} for later use. PKGNAME

If ${DISTNAME} does not conform to our , you should set the ${PKGNAME} variable to something better. See the abovementioned guideline for more details. CATEGORIES

When a package is created, it is put under /usr/ports/packages/All and links are made from one or more subdirectories of /usr/ports/packages. The names of these subdirectories are specified by the variable ${CATEGORIES}. It is intended to make life easier for the user when he is wading through the pile of packages on the ftp site or the CD-ROM. Please take a look at the existing and pick the ones that are suitable for your port.

This list also determines where in the ports tree the port is imported. If you put more than one category here, it is assumed that the port files will be put in the subdirectory with the name in the first category. See the section for more discussion about how to pick the right categories.

If your port truly belongs to something that is different from all the existing ones, you can even create a new category name. In that case, please send mail to the &a.ports; to propose a new category.

Note that there is no error checking for category names; `make package' will happily create a new directory if you mistype the category name, so be careful! MASTER_SITES

Record the directory part of the ftp/http-URL pointing at the original tarball in ${MASTER_SITES}. Do not forget the trailing slash (/)! The make macros will try to use this specification for grabbing the distribution file with ${FETCH} if they cannot find it already on the system.

It is recommended that you put multiple sites on this list, preferably from different continents. This will safeguard against wide-area network problems, and we are even planning to add support for automatically determining the closest master site and fetching from there!

If the original tarball is part of one of the following popular archives: X-contrib, GNU, Perl CPAN, TeX CTAN, or Linux Sunsite, you refer to those sites in an easy compact form using MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB, MASTER_SITE_GNU, MASTER_SITE_PERL_CPAN, MASTER_SITE_TEX_CTAN, and MASTER_SITE_SUNSITE. Simply set MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR to the path with in the archive. Here is an example: MASTER_SITES= ${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB} MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR= applications

The user can also set the MASTER_SITE_* variables in /etc/make.conf to override our choices, and use their favorite mirrors of these popular archives instead. PATCHFILES

If your port requires some additional patches that are available by ftp or http, set ${PATCHFILES} to the names of the files and ${PATCH_SITES} to the URL of the directory that contains them (the format is the same as ${MASTER_SITES}).

If the patch is not relative to the top of the source tree (i.e., ${WKRSRC}) because it contains some extra pathnames, set ${PATCH_DIST_STRIP} accordingly. For instance, if all the pathnames in the patch have an extra `foozolix-1.0/' in front of the filenames, then set `PATCH_DIST_STRIP=-p1'.

Do not worry if the patches are compressed, they will be decompressed automatically if the filenames end with `.gz' or `.Z'.

If the patch is distributed with some other files, such as documentation, in a gzip'd tarball, you can't just use ${PATCHFILES}. If that is the case, add the name and the location of the patch tarball to ${DISTFILES} and ${MASTER_SITES}. Then, from the pre-patch target, apply the patch either by running the patch command from there, or copying the patch file into the ${PATCHDIR} directory and calling it patch-<xx>. (Note the tarball will have been extracted alongside the regular source by then, so there is no need to explicitly extract it if it is a regular gzip'd or compress'd tarball.) If you do the latter, take extra care not to overwrite something that already exists in that directory. Also do not forget to add a command to remove the copied patch in the pre-clean target. MAINTAINER

Set your mail-address here. Please. :)

For detailed description of the responsibility of maintainers, refer to section. Dependencies

Many ports depend on other ports. There are five variables that you can use to ensure that all the required bits will be on the user's machine. There are also some pre-supported dependency variables for common cases, plus a few more to control the behavior of dependencies. LIB_DEPENDS

This variable specifies the shared libraries this port depends on. It is a list of `lib:dir[:target]' tuples where lib is the name of the shared library, and dir is the directory in which to find it in case it is not available, and LIB_DEPENDS= jpeg.9:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg:install will check for a shared jpeg library with major version 9, and descend into the graphics/jpeg subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found. The `${DEPENDS_TARGET} (which defaults to `lib part is an argument given to `ldconfig -r | grep -wF'. There shall be no regular expressions in this variable. The dependency is checked twice, once from within the pkg_add will automatically install it if it is not on the user's system. RUN_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port depends on during run-time. It is a list of `path:dir[:target]' tuples where path is the name of the executable or file, and dir is the directory in which to find it in case it is not available, and `path starts with a slash (/), it is treated as a file or directory and its existence is tested with `test -e'; otherwise, it is assumed to be an executable, and `which -s' is used to determine if the program exists in the user's search path.

For example, RUN_DEPENDS= ${PREFIX}/etc/innd:${PORTSDIR}/news/inn \ wish8.0:${PORTSDIR}/x11-toolkits/tk80 will check if the file or directory `/usr/local/etc/innd' exists, and build and install it from the news/inn subdirectory of the ports tree if it is not found. It will also see if an executable called `wish8.0' is in your search path, and descend into the x11-toolkits/tk80 subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found. (Note that in this case, `innd' is actually an executable; if an executable is in a place that is not expected to be in a normal user's search path, you should use the full pathname.) The dependency is checked from within the install target. Also, the name of the dependency is put in to the package so that pkg_add will automatically install it if it is not on the user's system. The `${DEPENDS_TARGET}. BUILD_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port requires to build. Like RUN_DEPENDS, it is a list of `path:dir[:target]' tuples. For example, BUILD_DEPENDS= unzip:${PORTSDIR}/archivers/unzip will check for an executable called `unzip', and descend into the archivers/unzip subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found. Note that `build' here means everything from extracting to compilation. The dependency is checked from within the extract target. The `${DEPENDS_TARGET}. FETCH_DEPENDS

This variable specifies executables or files this port requires to fetch. Like the previous two, it is a list of `path:dir[:target]' pairs. For example, FETCH_DEPENDS= ncftp2:${PORTSDIR}/net/ncftp2 will check for an executable called `ncftp2', and descend into the net/ncftp2 subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found. The dependency is checked from within the fetch target. The `${DEPENDS_TARGET}. DEPENDS

If there is a dependency that does not fall into either of the above four categories, or your port requires to have the source of the other port extracted in addition to having them installed, then use this variable. This is a list of `dir[:target]', as there is nothing to check, unlike the previous four. The `${DEPENDS_TARGET}. Common dependency variables

Define `USE_XLIB=yes' if your port requires the X Window System to be installed (it is implied by USE_IMAKE). Define `USE_GMAKE=yes' if your port requires GNU USE_AUTOCONF=yes' if your port requires GNU autoconf to be run. Define `USE_QT=yes' if your port uses the latest qt toolkit. Use `USE_PERL5=yes' if your port requires version 5 of the perl language. (The last is especially important since some versions of FreeBSD has perl5 as part of the base system while others don't.) Notes on dependencies

As mentioned above, the default target to call when a dependency is required is ${DEPENDS_TARGET}. It defaults to `*_DEPENDS variables instead of redefining ${DEPENDS_TARGET}.

When you type `make clean', its dependencies are automatically cleaned too. If you do not wish this to happen, define the variable To depend on another port unconditionally, it is customary to use the string ` BUILD_DEPENDS= /nonexistent:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg:extract will always descend to the JPEG port and extract it.

Do not use ` Building mechanisms

If your package uses GNU make, set `USE_GMAKE=yes'. If your package uses configure, set `HAS_CONFIGURE=yes'. If your package uses GNU GNU_CONFIGURE=yes' (this implies --prefix=${PREFIX}' for GNU ${CONFIGURE_ARGS}. If your package uses GNU USE_AUTOCONF=yes'. This implies If your package is an X application that creates Makefiles from Imakefiles using imake, then set `USE_IMAKE=yes'. This will cause the configure stage to automatically do an xmkmf -a. If the `-a' flag is a problem for your port, set `XMKMF=xmkmf'. If the port uses imake but does not understand the `install.man' target, `NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES=yes' should be set. In addition, the author of the original port should be shot. :>

If your port's source Makefile has something else than `all' as the main build target, set ${ALL_TARGET} accordingly. Same goes for `install' and ${INSTALL_TARGET}. Special Considerations

There are some more things you have to take into account when you create a port. This section explains the most common of those.

If your port installs a shared library, add a post-install target to your Makefile that runs `${LDCONFIG} -m' on the directory where the new library is installed (usually ${PREFIX}/lib) to register it into the shared library cache.

Also, add a matching `@exec /sbin/ldconfig -m'/`@unexec /sbin/ldconfig -R' pair to your pkg/PLIST file so that a user who installed the package can start using the shared library immediately and deinstallation will not cause the system to still believe the library is there. These lines should immediately follow the line for the shared library itself, as in: lib/libtcl80.so.1 @exec /sbin/ldconfig -m %D/lib @unexec /sbin/ldconfig -R

Never, ever, ever add a line that says `ldconfig' without any arguments to your Makefile or pkg/PLIST. This will reset the shared library cache to the contents of /usr/lib only, and will royally screw up the user's machine ("Help, xinit does not run anymore after I install this port!"). Anybody who does this will be shot and cut into 65,536 pieces by a rusty knife and have his liver chopped out by a bunch of crows and will eternally rot to death in the deepest bowels of hell (not necessarily in that order).... ELF support

Since FreeBSD moved to ELF with the 3.0-release, we need to convert many ports that build shared libraries to support ELF. Complicating this task is that a 3.0 system can run as both ELF and a.out, and we wish to unoffically support the 2.2 as long as possible. Below are the guidelines on how to convert a.out only ports to support both a.out and ELF compilation.

Some part of this list is only applicable during the conversion, but will be left here for awhile for reference in case you have come across some old port you wish to upgrade. Moving a.out libraries out of the way

A.out libraries should be moved out of /usr/local/lib and similar to an `src/Makefile (called from ` Format

The ports tree will build packages in the format the machine is in. This means a.out for 2.2 and a.out or ELF for 3.0 depending on what `objformat` returns. Also, once users move a.out libraries to a subdirectory, building a.out libraries will be unsupported. (I.e., it may still work if you know what you are doing, but you are on your own.)

Note: if a port only works for a.out, set PORTOBJFORMAT

PORTOBJFORMAT=${PORTOBJFORMAT}'. (See comment on The variable is set using this line: PORTOBJFORMAT!= test -x /usr/bin/objformat && /usr/bin/objformat || echo aout in Ports' make processes should use this variable to decide what to do. However, if the port's Building shared libraries

The following are differences in handling shared libraries for a.out and ELF. Shared library versionsAn ELF shared library should be called "Linker command linesAssuming `cc -shared' is used rather than `-Wl,-soname,libfoo.so.M' on the command line for ELF.

You need to install a symlink libfoo.so -> libfoo.so.N to make ELF linkers happy. Since it should be listed in

All port Makefiles are edited to remove minor numbers from foo\\.1\\.\\(33|40\\)' -> `foo.2'.) They will be matched using `grep -wF'.

In cases where you really need to install shlibs with two versions on an ELF system or those with one version on an a.out system (for instance, ports that install compatibility libraries for other operating systems), define the variable

The ${SETENV} OBJFORMAT=${PORTOBJFORMAT} ${LDCONFIG} -m .... and in @exec /usr/bin/env OBJFORMAT=%%PORTOBJFORMAT%% /sbin/ldconfig -m ... @unexec /usr/bin/env OBJFORMAT=%%PORTOBJFORMAT%% /sbin/ldconfig -R This is to ensure that the correct

If your port needs to build slightly different versions of packages by having a variable (for instance, resolution or paper size) take different values, create one subdirectory per package to make it easier for users to see what to do, but try to share as many files as possible between ports. Typically you only need a very short Makefile in all but one of the directories if you use variables cleverly. In the sole Makefiles, you can use ${MASTERDIR} to specify the directory where the rest of the files are. Also, use a variable as part of so the packages will have different names.

This will be best demonstrated by an example. This is part of japanese/xdvi300/Makefile: : PKGNAME= ja-xdvi${RESOLUTION}-17 : # default RESOLUTION?= 300 .if ${RESOLUTION} != 118 && ${RESOLUTION} != 240 && \ ${RESOLUTION} != 300 && ${RESOLUTION} != 400 @${ECHO} "Error: invalid value for RESOLUTION: \"${RESOLUTION}\"" @${ECHO} "Possible values are: 118, 240, 300 (default) and 400." @${FALSE} .endif japanese/xdvi300 also has all the regular patches, package files, etc. If you type `As for other resolutions, this is the xdvi118/Makefile (minus the comments): RESOLUTION= 118 MASTERDIR= ${.CURDIR}/../xdvi300 .include "${MASTERDIR}/Makefile" (xdvi240/Makefile and xdvi400/Makefile are similar). The ${MASTERDIR} definition tells ${PATCHDIR} and ${PKGDIR} are to be found under xdvi300/Makefile and the port will be built with resolution set to 118. Shared library versions

First, please read our to understand what to do with shared library versions in general. Do not blindly assume software authors know what they are doing; many of them do not. It is very important that these details are carefully considered, as we have quite a unique situation where we are trying to have dozens of potentially incompatible software pairs co-exist. Careless port imports have caused great trouble regarding shared libraries in the past (ever wondered why the port However, if there is a port which is a different version of the same software already in the tree, the situation is much more complex. In short, the FreeBSD implementation does not allow the user to specify to the linker which version of shared library to link against (the linker will always pick the highest numbered version). This means, if there is a Manpages

The pkg/PLIST (this means you must for more). It also makes the install stage automatically compress or uncompress manpages depending on the setting of /etc/make.conf.

To specify whether the manpages are compressed upon installation, use the If your port anchors its man tree somewhere other than PREFIX, you can use the MANPREFIX to set it. Also, if only manpages in certain sections go in a non-standard place, such as some Perl modules ports, you can set individual man paths using MANsectPREFIX (where sect is one of 1-9, L or N).

If your manpages go to language-specific subdirectories, set the name of the languages to "" (i.e., English only).

Here is an example that puts it all together. MAN1= foo.1 MAN3= bar.3 MAN4= baz.4 MANLANG= "" ja MAN3PREFIX= ${PREFIX}/share/foobar MANCOMPRESSED= yes states that six files ${PREFIX}/man/man1/foo.1.gz ${PREFIX}/man/ja/man1/foo.1.gz ${PREFIX}/share/foobar/man/man3/bar.3.gz ${PREFIX}/share/foobar/man/ja/man3/bar.3.gz ${PREFIX}/man/man4/baz.4.gz ${PREFIX}/man/ja/man4/baz.4.gz are installed by this port. Ports that require Motif

There are many programs that require a Motif library (available from several commercial vendors, while there is a free clone reported to be able to run many applications in x11-toolkits/lesstif) to compile. Since it is a popular toolkit and their licenses usually permit redistribution of statically linked binaries, we have made special provisions for handling ports that require Motif in a way that we can easily compile binaries linked either dynamically (for people who are compiling from the port) or statically (for people who distribute packages). REQUIRES_MOTIF

If your port requires Motif, define this variable in the Makefile. This will prevent people who don't own a copy of Motif from even attempting to build it. ${MOTIFLIB}

This variable will be set by bsd.port.mk to be the appropriate reference to the Motif library. Please patch the source to use this wherever the Motif library is referenced in the Makefile or Imakefile.

There are two common cases: If the port refers to the Motif library as `-lXm' in its Makefile or Imakefile, simply substitute `${MOTIFLIB}' for it. If the port uses `XmClientLibs' in its Imakefile, change it to `${MOTIFLIB} ${XTOOLLIB} ${XLIB}'.

Note that ${MOTIFLIB} (usually) expands to `-L/usr/X11R6/lib -lXm' or `/usr/X11R6/lib/libXm.a', so there is no need to add `-L' or `-l' in front. X11 fonts

If your port installs fonts for the X window system, put them in ${X11BASE}/lib/X11/fonts/local. This directory is new to XFree86 release 3.3.3. If it does not exist, please create it, and print out a message urging the user to update their XFree86 to 3.3.3 or newer, or at least add this directory to the font path in /etc/XF86Config. Info files

The new version of texinfo (included in 2.2.2-RELEASE and onwards) contains a utility called `&dollar{PREFIX}/info/dir file. (Sorry for the length of this section, but it is imperative to weave all the info files together. If done correctly, it will produce a beautiful listing, so please bear with me! First, this is what you (as a porter) need to know: % install-info --help install-info [OPTION]... [INFO-FILE [DIR-FILE]] Install INFO-FILE in the Info directory file DIR-FILE. Options: --delete Delete existing entries in INFO-FILE; don't insert any new entries. : --entry=TEXT Insert TEXT as an Info directory entry. : --section=SEC Put this file's entries in section SEC of the directory. :

Note that this program will not actually Here's a seven-step procedure to convert ports to use editors/emacs as an example. Look at the texinfo sources and make a patch to insert --- ./man/vip.texi.org Fri Jun 16 15:31:11 1995 +++ ./man/vip.texi Tue May 20 01:28:33 1997 @@ -2,6 +2,10 @@ @setfilename ../info/vip @settitle VIP +@dircategory The Emacs editor and associated tools +@direntry +* VIP: (vip). A VI-emulation for Emacs. +@end direntry @iftex @finalout :

The format should be self-explanatory. Many authors leave a Note that you can put only one info entry per file because of a bug in `install-info --delete' that deletes only the first entry if you specify multiple entries in the You can give the three places (japanese/skk for examples on how to do this). Go back to the port directory and do a `make clean; make' and verify that the info files are regenerated from the texinfo sources. Since the texinfo sources are newer than the info files, they should be rebuilt when you type --- ./Makefile.in.org Mon Aug 19 21:12:19 1996 +++ ./Makefile.in Tue Apr 15 00:15:28 1997 @@ -184,7 +184,7 @@ # Subdirectories to make recursively. `lisp' is not included # because the compiled lisp files are part of the distribution # and you cannot remake them without installing Emacs first. -SUBDIR = lib-src src +SUBDIR = lib-src src man # The makefiles of the directories in $SUBDIR. SUBDIR_MAKEFILES = lib-src/Makefile man/Makefile src/Makefile oldXMenu/Makefile lwlib/Makefile --- ./man/Makefile.in.org Thu Jun 27 15:27:19 1996 +++ ./man/Makefile.in Tue Apr 15 00:29:52 1997 @@ -66,6 +66,7 @@ ${srcdir}/gnu1.texi \ ${srcdir}/glossary.texi +all: info info: $(INFO_TARGETS) dvi: $(DVI_TARGETS)

The second hunk was necessary because the default target in the /usr/share/info (that patch is not shown here). If there is a place in the --- ./Makefile.in.org Mon Aug 19 21:12:19 1996 +++ ./Makefile.in Mon Apr 14 23:38:07 1997 @@ -368,14 +368,8 @@ if [ `(cd ${srcdir}/info && /bin/pwd)` != `(cd ${infodir} && /bin/pwd)` ]; \ then \ (cd ${infodir}; \ - if [ -f dir ]; then \ - if [ ! -f dir.old ]; then mv -f dir dir.old; \ - else mv -f dir dir.bak; fi; \ - fi; \ cd ${srcdir}/info ; \ - (cd $${thisdir}; ${INSTALL_DATA} ${srcdir}/info/dir ${infodir}/dir); \ - (cd $${thisdir}; chmod a+r ${infodir}/dir); \ for f in ccmode* cl* dired-x* ediff* emacs* forms* gnus* info* message* mh-e* sc* vip*; do \ (cd $${thisdir}; \ ${INSTALL_DATA} ${srcdir}/info/$$f ${infodir}/$$f; \ chmod a+r ${infodir}/$$f); \ (This step is only necessary if you are modifying an existing port.) Take a look at pkg/PLIST and delete anything that is trying to patch up info/dir. They may be in pkg/INSTALL or some other file, so search extensively. Index: pkg/PLIST =================================================================== RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/pkg/PLIST,v retrieving revision 1.15 diff -u -r1.15 PLIST --- PLIST 1997/03/04 08:04:00 1.15 +++ PLIST 1997/04/15 06:32:12 @@ -15,9 +15,6 @@ man/man1/emacs.1.gz man/man1/etags.1.gz man/man1/ctags.1.gz -@unexec cp %D/info/dir %D/info/dir.bak -info/dir -@unexec cp %D/info/dir.bak %D/info/dir info/cl info/cl-1 info/cl-2 Add a Index: Makefile =================================================================== RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/Makefile,v retrieving revision 1.26 diff -u -r1.26 Makefile --- Makefile 1996/11/19 13:14:40 1.26 +++ Makefile 1997/05/20 10:25:09 1.28 @@ -20,5 +20,11 @@ post-install: .for file in emacs-19.34 emacsclient etags ctags b2m strip ${PREFIX}/bin/${file} .endfor + if [ ! -f ${PREFIX}/info/dir ]; then \ + ${SED} -ne '1,/Menu:/p' /usr/share/info/dir > ${PREFIX}/info/dir; \ + fi +.for info in emacs vip viper forms gnus mh-e cl sc dired-x ediff ccmode + install-info ${PREFIX}/info/${info} ${PREFIX}/info/dir +.endfor .include

Do not use anything other than /usr/share/info/dir and the above command to create a new info file. In fact, I'd add the first three lines of the above patch to Edit info/dir with Index: pkg/PLIST =================================================================== RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/pkg/PLIST,v retrieving revision 1.15 diff -u -r1.15 PLIST --- PLIST 1997/03/04 08:04:00 1.15 +++ PLIST 1997/05/20 10:25:12 1.17 @@ -16,7 +14,15 @@ man/man1/etags.1.gz man/man1/ctags.1.gz +@unexec install-info --delete %D/info/emacs %D/info/dir : +@unexec install-info --delete %D/info/ccmode %D/info/dir info/cl info/cl-1 @@ -87,6 +94,18 @@ info/viper-3 info/viper-4 +@exec [ -f %D/info/dir ] || sed -ne '1,/Menu:/p' /usr/share/info/dir > %D/info/dir +@exec install-info %D/info/emacs %D/info/dir : +@exec install-info %D/info/ccmode %D/info/dir libexec/emacs/19.34/i386--freebsd/cvtmail libexec/emacs/19.34/i386--freebsd/digest-doc

Note that the `@unexec install-info --delete' commands have to be listed before the info files themselves so they can read the files. Also, the `@exec install-info' commands have to be after the info files and the and admire your work. The

There are some tricks we haven't mentioned yet about the

If your port needs to execute commands when the binary package is installed with INSTALL ${PKGNAME} PRE-INSTALL' and the second time as `INSTALL ${PKGNAME} POST-INSTALL'. `$2' can be tested to determine which mode the script is being run in. The `PKG_PREFIX' environmental variable will be set to the package installation directory. See man pkg_add(1) for additional information. Note, that this script is not run automatically if you install the port with `make install'. If you are depending on it being run, you will have to explicitly call it from your port's Makefile.

If your port needs to determine if it should install or not, you can create a pkg/REQ ``requirements'' script. It will be invoked automatically at installation/deinstallation time to determine whether or not installation/deinstallation should proceed. Changing

Some ports, particularly the p5- ports, need to change their If you need to make other substitutions, you can set the PLIST_SUB variable with a list of VAR=VALUE pairs and instances of `%%VAR%%' will be substituted with ` OCTAVE_VERSION= 2.0.13 PLIST_SUB= OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION} in the %%OCTAVE_VERSION%% wherever the version shows up in This substitution (as well as addition of any ) will be done between the ${PLIST} and writing to ${TMPPLIST} (default: ${WRKDIR}/.PLIST.mktmp). So if your port builds ${PLIST} on the fly, do so in or before Changing the names of files in the

All the filenames in the for why it is a bad idea to write directly into the Here is a list of variable names and their default values. COMMENT ${PKGDIR}/COMMENT DESCR ${PKGDIR}/DESCR PLIST ${PKGDIR}/PLIST PKGINSTALL ${PKGDIR}/INSTALL PKGDEINSTALL ${PKGDIR}/DEINSTALL PKGREQ ${PKGDIR}/REQ PKGMESSAGE ${PKGDIR}/MESSAGE

Please change these variables rather than overriding PKG_ARGS. If you change PKG_ARGS, those files will not correctly be installed in /var/db/pkg upon install from a port. Licensing Problems

Some software packages have restrictive licenses or can be in violation to the law (PKP's patent on public key crypto, ITAR (export of crypto software) to name just two of them). What we can do with them varies a lot, depending on the exact wordings of the respective licenses.

Note that it is your responsibility as a porter to read the licensing terms of the software and make sure that the FreeBSD project will not be held accountable of violating them by redistributing the source or compiled binaries either via ftp or CD-ROM. If in doubt, please contact the &a.ports;.

There are two variables you can set in the Makefile to handle the situations that arise frequently: If the port has a `do not sell for profit' type of license, set the variable NO_CDROM to the string describing the reason why. We will make sure such ports won't go into the CD-ROM come release time. The distfile and package will still be available via ftp. If the resulting package needs to be built uniquely for each site, or the resulting binary package can't be distributed due to licensing, set the variable NO_PACKAGE to the string describing the reason why. We will make sure such packages won't go on the ftp site, nor into the CD-ROM come release time. The distfile will still be included on both however. If the port has legal restrictions on who can use it (e.g., crypto stuff) or has a `no commercial use' license, set the variable RESTRICTED to be the string describing the reason why. For such ports, the distfiles/packages will not be available even from our ftp sites.

Note: The GNU General Public License (GPL), both version 1 and 2, should not be a problem for ports.

Note: If you are a committer, make sure you update the ports/LEGAL file too. Upgrading

When you notice that a port is out of date compared to the latest version from the original authors, first make sure you have the latest port. You can find them in the ports-current directory of the ftp mirror sites.

The next step is to send a mail to the maintainer, if one is listed in the port's Makefile. That person may already be working on an upgrade, or have a reason to not upgrade the port right now (because of, for example, stability problems of the new version).

If the maintainer asks you to do the upgrade or there isn't any such person to begin with, please make the upgrade and send the recursive diff (either unified or context diff is fine, but port committers appear to prefer unified diff more) of the new and old ports directories to us (e.g., if your modified port directory is called `superedit' and the original as in our tree is `superedit.bak', then send us the result of `diff -ruN superedit.bak superedit'). Please examine the output to make sure all the changes make sense. The best way to send us the diff is by including it to send-pr(1) (category `ports'). Please mention any added or deleted files in the message, as they have to be explicitly specified to CVS when doing a commit. If the diff is more than about 20KB, please compress and uuencode it; otherwise, just include it in as is in the PR. Do's and Dont's

Here is a list of common do's and dont's that you encounter during the porting process. You should check your own port against this list, but you can also check ports in the PR database that others have submitted. Submit any comments on ports you check as described in . Checking ports in the PR database will both make it faster for us to commit them, and prove that you know what you are doing. Strip Binaries

Do strip binaries. If the original source already strips the binaries, fine; otherwise you should add a post-install rule to do it yourself. Here is an example: post-install: strip ${PREFIX}/bin/xdl

Use the file command on the installed executable to check whether the binary is stripped or not. If it does not say `not stripped', it is stripped. INSTALL_* macros

Do use the macros provided in bsd.port.mk to ensure correct modes and ownership of files in your own *-install targets. They are: ${INSTALL_PROGRAM} is a command to install binary executables. ${INSTALL_SCRIPT} is a command to install executable scripts. ${INSTALL_DATA} is a command to install sharable data. ${INSTALL_MAN} is a command to install manpages and other documentation (it doesn't compress anything).

These are basically the install command with all the appropriate flags. See below for an example on how to use them.

Do not write anything to files outside for an example of + name="compiling ports from CDROM"> for an example of building ports from a read-only tree). If you need to modify some file in ${PKGDIR}, do so by , not by writing over it.

Make sure your port honors ${WRKDIR} of another port, note that the correct location is ${WRKDIRPREFIX}${PORTSDIR}/subdir/name/work, not ${PORTSDIR}/subdir/name/work or ${.CURDIR}/../../subdir/name/work or some such.

Also, if you are defining ${WRKDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} in the front. Differentiating operating systems and OS versions

You may come across code that needs modifications or conditional compilation based upon what version of UNIX it is running under. If you need to make such changes to the code for conditional compilation, make sure you make the changes as general as possible so that we can back-port code to FreeBSD 1.x systems and cross-port to other BSD systems such as 4.4BSD from CSRG, BSD/386, 386BSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD.

The preferred way to tell 4.3BSD/Reno (1990) and newer versions of the BSD code apart is by using the `BSD' macro defined in <sys/param.h>. Hopefully that file is already included; if not, add the code: #if (defined(__unix__) || defined(unix)) && !defined(USG) #include #endif

to the proper place in the .c file. We believe that every system that defines these two symbols has sys/param.h. If you find a system that doesn't, we would like to know. Please send mail to the &a.ports;.

Another way is to use the GNU Autoconf style of doing this: #ifdef HAVE_SYS_PARAM_H #include #endif Don't forget to add -DHAVE_SYS_PARAM_H to the CFLAGS in the Makefile for this method. Once you have <sys/param.h> included, you may use: #if (defined(BSD) && (BSD >= 199103)) to detect if the code is being compiled on a 4.3 Net2 code base or newer (e.g. FreeBSD 1.x, 4.3/Reno, NetBSD 0.9, 386BSD, BSD/386 1.1 and below). Use: #if (defined(BSD) && (BSD >= 199306)) to detect if the code is being compiled on a 4.4 code base or newer (e.g. FreeBSD 2.x, 4.4, NetBSD 1.0, BSD/386 2.0 or above). The value of the BSD macro is 199506 for the 4.4BSD-Lite2 code base. This is stated for informational purposes only. It should not be used to distinguish between versions of FreeBSD based only on 4.4-Lite vs. versions that have merged in changes from 4.4-Lite2. The __FreeBSD__ macro should be used instead.

Use sparingly: __FreeBSD__ is defined in all versions of FreeBSD. Use it if the change you are making ONLY affects FreeBSD. Porting gotchas like the use of sys_errlist[] vs strerror() are Berkeleyisms, not FreeBSD changes. In FreeBSD 2.x, __FreeBSD__ is defined to be 2. In earlier versions, it is 1. Later versions will bump it to match their major version number. If you need to tell the difference between a FreeBSD 1.x system and a FreeBSD 2.x or 3.x system, usually the right answer is to use the BSD macros described above. If there actually is a FreeBSD specific change (such as special shared library options when using `ld') then it is OK to use __FreeBSD__ and `#if __FreeBSD__ > 1' to detect a FreeBSD 2.x and later system. If you need more granularity in detecting FreeBSD systems since 2.0-RELEASE you can use the following: #if __FreeBSD__ >= 2 #include # if __FreeBSD_version >= 199504 /* 2.0.5+ release specific code here */ # endif #endif __FreeBSD_version values: 2.0-RELEASE: 199411 2.1-current's: 199501, 199503 2.0.5-RELEASE: 199504 2.2-current before 2.1: 199508 2.1.0-RELEASE: 199511 2.2-current before 2.1.5: 199512 2.1.5-RELEASE: 199607 2.2-current before 2.1.6: 199608 2.1.6-RELEASE: 199612 2.1.7-RELEASE: 199612 2.2-RELEASE: 220000 2.2.1-RELEASE: 220000 (yes, no change) 2.2-STABLE after 2.2.1-RELEASE: 220000 (yes, still no change) 2.2-STABLE after texinfo-3.9: 221001 2.2-STABLE after top: 221002 2.2.2-RELEASE: 222000 2.2-STABLE after 2.2.2-RELEASE: 222001 2.2.5-RELEASE: 225000 2.2-STABLE after 2.2.5-RELEASE: 225001 2.2-STABLE after ldconfig -R merge: 225002 2.2.6-RELEASE: 226000 2.2.7-RELEASE: 227000 2.2-STABLE after 2.2.7-RELEASE: 227001 2.2-STABLE after semctl(2) change: 227002 2.2.8-RELEASE: 228000 2.2-STABLE after 2.2.8-RELEASE: 228001 3.0-current before mount(2) change: 300000 3.0-current after mount(2) change: 300001 3.0-current after semctl(2) change: 300002 3.0-current after ioctl arg changes: 300003 3.0-current after ELF conversion: 300004 3.0-RELEASE: 300005 3.0-current after 3.0-RELEASE: 300006 3.0-stable after 3/4 branch: 300007 3.1-RELEASE: 310000 3.1-stable after 3.1-RELEASE: 310001 4.0-current after 3/4 branch: 400000 (Note that 2.2-STABLE sometimes identifies itself as "2.2.[5678]-STABLE" after the 2.2.5-RELEASE.) The pattern used to be year followed by the month, but we decided to change it to a more straightforward major/minor system starting from 2.2. This is because the parallel development on several branches made it infeasible to classify the releases simply by their real release dates. (Note that if you are making a port now, you don't have to worry about old -current's; they are listed here just for your reference.)

In the hundreds of ports that have been done, there have only been one or two cases where __FreeBSD__ should have been used. Just because an earlier port screwed up and used it in the wrong place does not mean you should do so too. Writing something after

Do not write anything after the `.include <bsd.port.mk>' line. It usually can be avoided by including &dollar{ARCH} The architecture, as returned by `uname -m' (e.g., `i386'). &dollar{OPSYS} The operating system type, as returned by `uname -s' (e.g., `FreeBSD'). &dollar{OSREL} The release version of the operating system (e.g., `2.1.5', `2.2.7'). &dollar{OSVERSION} The numeric version of the operating system, same as above. &dollar{PORTOBJFORMAT} The object format of the system (`aout' or `elf'). &dollar{LOCALBASE} The base of the `local' tree (e.g., `/usr/local/'). &dollar{X11BASE} The base of the `X11' tree (e.g., `/usr/X11R6/'). &dollar{PREFIX} Where the port installs itself (see ).

Note: if you have to define the variables # no need to compile lang/perl5 if perl5 is already in system .if ${OSVERSION} > 300003 BROKEN= perl is in system .endif # only one shlib version number for ELF .if ${PORTOBJFORMAT} == "elf" TCL_LIB_FILE= ${TCL_LIB}.${SHLIB_MAJOR} .else TCL_LIB_FILE= ${TCL_LIB}.${SHLIB_MAJOR}.${SHLIB_MINOR} .endif # software already makes link for ELF, but not for a.out post-install: .if ${PORTOBJFORMAT} == "aout" ${LN} -sf liblinpack.so.1.0 ${PREFIX}/lib/liblinpack.so .endif Install additional documentation

If your software has some documentation other than the standard man and info pages that you think is useful for the user, install it under ${PREFIX}/share/doc. This can be done, like the previous item, in the post-install target.

Create a new directory for your port. The directory name should reflect what the port is. This usually means ${PKGNAME} minus the version part. However, if you think the user might want different versions of the port to be installed at the same time, you can use the whole ${PKGNAME}.

Make the installation dependent on the variable NOPORTDOCS so that users can disable it in /etc/make.conf, like this: post-install: .if !defined(NOPORTDOCS) ${MKDIR} ${PREFIX}/share/doc/xv ${INSTALL_MAN} ${WRKSRC}/docs/xvdocs.ps ${PREFIX}/share/doc/xv .endif

Do not forget to add them to pkg/PLIST too! (Do not worry about NOPORTDOCS here; there is currently no way for the packages to read variables from /etc/make.conf.)

Also, you can use the pkg/MESSAGE file to display messages upon installation. See the section for details. DIST_SUBDIR

Do not let your port clutter /usr/ports/distfiles. If your port requires a lot of files to be fetched, or contains a file that has a name that might conflict with other ports (e.g., `Makefile'), set ${DIST_SUBDIR} to the name of the port (${PKGNAME} without the version part should work fine). This will change ${DISTDIR} from the default /usr/ports/distfiles to /usr/ports/distfiles/${DIST_SUBDIR}, and in effect puts everything that is required for your port into that subdirectory.

It will also look at the subdirectory with the same name on the backup master site at ftp.freebsd.org. (Setting ${DISTDIR} explicitly in your Makefile will not accomplish this, so please use ${DIST_SUBDIR}.)

Note this does not affect the ${MASTER_SITES} you define in your Makefile. RCS strings

Do not put RCS strings in patches. CVS will mangle them when we put the files into the ports tree, and when we check them out again, they will come out different and the patch will fail. RCS strings are surrounded by dollar (`$') signs, and typically start with `$Id' or `$RCS'. Recursive diff

Using the recurse (`-r') option to diff to generate patches is fine, but please take a look at the resulting patches to make sure you don't have any unnecessary junk in there. In particular, diffs between two backup files, Makefiles when the port uses Imake or GNU Also, if you had to delete a file, then you can do it in the post-extract target rather than as part of the patch. Once you are happy with the resulting diff, please split it up into one source file per patch file. PREFIX

Do try to make your port install relative to ${PREFIX}. (The value of this variable will be set to ${LOCALBASE} (default /usr/local), unless ${USE_X_PREFIX} or ${USE_IMAKE} is set, in which case it will be ${X11BASE} (default /usr/X11R6).)

Not hard-coding `/usr/local' or `/usr/X11R6' anywhere in the source will make the port much more flexible and able to cater to the needs of other sites. For X ports that use imake, this is automatic; otherwise, this can often be done by simply replacing the occurrences of `/usr/local' (or `/usr/X11R6' for X ports that do not use imake) in the various scripts/Makefiles in the port to read `${PREFIX}', as this variable is automatically passed down to every stage of the build and install processes.

Do not set USE_X_PREFIX unless your port truly requires it (i.e. it links against X libs or it needs to reference files in ${X11BASE}).

The variable ${PREFIX} can be reassigned in your Makefile or in the user's environment. However, it is strongly discouraged for individual ports to set this variable explicitly in the Makefiles.

Also, refer to programs/files from other ports with the variables mentioned above, not explicit pathnames. For instance, if your port requires a macro PAGER to be the full pathname of less, use the compiler flag: -DPAGER=\"${PREFIX}/bin/less\" or -DPAGER=\"${LOCALBASE}/bin/less\" if this is an X port, instead of -DPAGER=\"/usr/local/bin/less\". This way it will have a better chance of working if the system administrator has moved the whole `/usr/local' tree somewhere else. Subdirectories

Try to let the port put things in the right subdirectories of ${PREFIX}. Some ports lump everything and put it in the subdirectory with the port's name, which is incorrect. Also, many ports put everything except binaries, header files and manual pages in the a subdirectory of `lib', which does not bode well with the BSD paradigm. Many of the files should be moved to one of the following: `etc' (setup/configuration files), `libexec' (executables started internally), `sbin' (executables for superusers/managers), `info' (documentation for info browser) or `share' (architecture independent files). See man hier(7) for details; the rules governing /usr pretty much apply to /usr/local too. The exceptions are ports dealing with USENET `news'. They may use ${PREFIX}/news as a destination for their files. Cleaning up empty directories

Do make your ports clean up after themselves when they are deinstalled. This is usually accomplished by adding : lib/X11/oneko/pixmaps/cat.xpm lib/X11/oneko/sounds/cat.au : @dirrm lib/X11/oneko/pixmaps @dirrm lib/X11/oneko/sounds @dirrm lib/X11/oneko

However, sometimes : @unexec rmdir %D/share/doc/gimp 2>/dev/null || true This will neither print any error messages nor cause ${PREFIX}/share/doc/gimp is not empty due to other ports installing some files in there. UIDs

If your port requires a certain user to be on the installed system, let the pkg/INSTALL script call pw to create it automatically. Look at net/cvsup-mirror for an example.

If your port must use the same user/group ID number when it is installed as a binary package as when it was compiled, then you must choose a free UID from 50 to 99 and register it below. Look at japanese/Wnn for an example.

Make sure you don't use a UID already used by the system or other ports. This is the current list of UIDs between 50 and 99. majordom:*:54:54:Majordomo Pseudo User:/usr/local/majordomo:/nonexistent cyrus:*:60:60:the cyrus mail server:/nonexistent:/nonexistent gnats:*:61:1:GNATS database owner:/usr/local/share/gnats/gnats-db:/bin/sh uucp:*:66:66:UUCP pseudo-user:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/libexec/uucp/uucico xten:*:67:67:X-10 daemon:/usr/local/xten:/nonexistent pop:*:68:6:Post Office Owner (popper):/nonexistent:/nonexistent wnn:*:69:7:Wnn:/nonexistent:/nonexistent ifmail:*:70:66:Ifmail user:/nonexistent:/nonexistent pgsql:*:70:70:PostgreSQL pseudo-user:/usr/local/pgsql:/bin/sh ircd:*:72:72:IRCd hybrid:/nonexistent:/nonexistent alias:*:81:81:QMail user:/var/qmail/alias:/nonexistent qmaill:*:83:81:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent qmaild:*:82:81:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent qmailq:*:85:82:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent qmails:*:87:82:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent qmailp:*:84:81:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent qmailr:*:86:82:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent msql:*:87:87:mSQL-2 pseudo-user:/var/db/msqldb:/bin/sh

Please include a notice when you submit a port (or an upgrade) that reserves a new UID or GID in this range. This allows us to keep the list of reserved IDs up to date. Do things rationally

The Makefile should do things simply and reasonably. If you can make it a couple of lines shorter or more readable, then do so. Examples include using a make `.if' construct instead of a shell `if' construct, not redefining do-extract if you can redefine ${EXTRACT*} instead, and using $GNU_CONFIGURE instead of `CONFIGURE_ARGS += --prefix=${PREFIX}'. Respect CFLAGS

The port should respect the ${CFLAGS} variable. If it doesn't, please add `NO_PACKAGE=ignores cflags' to the Makefile. Configuration files

If your port requires some configuration files in ${PREFIX}/etc, do pkg/PLIST. That will cause Instead, install sample files with a suffix (`<filename>.sample' will work well) and print out a pointing out that the user has to copy and edit the file before the software can be made to work. Portlint

Do check your port with before you submit or commit it. Feedback

Do send applicable changes/patches to the original author/maintainer for inclusion in next release of the code. This will only make your job that much easier for the next release. Miscellanea

The files pkg/DESCR, pkg/COMMENT, and pkg/PLIST should each be double-checked. If you are reviewing a port and feel they can be worded better, do so.

Don't copy more copies of the GNU General Public License into our system, please.

Please be careful to note any legal issues! Don't let us illegally distribute software! If you are stuck....

Do look at existing examples and the bsd.port.mk file before asking us questions! ;)

Do ask us questions if you have any trouble! Do not just beat your head against a wall! :) A Sample Makefile

Here is a sample Makefile that you can use to create a new port. Make sure you remove all the extra comments (ones between brackets)!

It is recommended that you follow this format (ordering of variables, empty lines between sections, etc.). This format is designed so that the most important information is easy to locate. We recommend that you use to check the Makefile. [the header...just to make it easier for us to identify the ports.] # New ports collection makefile for: xdvi [the version required header should updated when upgrading a port.] # Version required: pl18 [things like "1.5alpha" are fine here too] [this is the date when the first version of this Makefile was created. Never change this when doing an update of the port.] # Date created: 26 May 1995 [this is the person who did the original port to FreeBSD, in particular, the person who wrote the first version of this Makefile. Remember, this should not be changed when upgrading the port later.] # Whom: Satoshi Asami # # $Id$ [ ^^^^ This will be automatically replaced with RCS ID string by CVS when it is committed to our repository.] # [section to describe the port itself and the master site - DISTNAME is always first, followed by PKGNAME (if necessary), CATEGORIES, and then MASTER_SITES, which can be followed by MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR. After those, one of EXTRACT_SUFX or DISTFILES can be specified too.] DISTNAME= xdvi PKGNAME= xdvi-pl18 CATEGORIES= print [do not forget the trailing slash ("/")! if you aren't using MASTER_SITE_* macros] MASTER_SITES= ${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB} MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR= applications [set this if the source is not in the standard ".tar.gz" form] EXTRACT_SUFX= .tar.Z [section for distributed patches -- can be empty] PATCH_SITES= ftp://ftp.sra.co.jp/pub/X11/japanese/ PATCHFILES= xdvi-18.patch1.gz xdvi-18.patch2.gz [maintainer; *mandatory*! This is the person (preferably with commit privileges) who a user can contact for questions and bug reports - this person should be the porter or someone who can forward questions to the original porter reasonably promptly. If you really do not want to have your address here, set it to "ports@FreeBSD.ORG".] MAINTAINER= asami@FreeBSD.ORG [dependencies -- can be empty] RUN_DEPENDS= gs:${PORTSDIR}/print/ghostscript LIB_DEPENDS= Xpm.5:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/xpm [this section is for other standard bsd.port.mk variables that do not belong to any of the above] [If it asks questions during configure, build, install...] IS_INTERACTIVE= yes [If it extracts to a directory other than ${DISTNAME}...] WRKSRC= ${WRKDIR}/xdvi-new [If the distributed patches were not made relative to ${WRKSRC}, you may need to tweak this] PATCH_DIST_STRIP= -p1 [If it requires a "configure" script generated by GNU autoconf to be run] GNU_CONFIGURE= yes [If it requires GNU make, not /usr/bin/make, to build...] USE_GMAKE= yes [If it is an X application and requires "xmkmf -a" to be run...] USE_IMAKE= yes [et cetera.] [non-standard variables to be used in the rules below] MY_FAVORITE_RESPONSE= "yeah, right" [then the special rules, in the order they are called] pre-fetch: i go fetch something, yeah post-patch: i need to do something after patch, great pre-install: and then some more stuff before installing, wow [and then the epilogue] .include Package Names

The following are the conventions you should follow in naming your packages. This is to have our package directory easy to scan, as there are already lots and lots of packages and users are going to turn away if they hurt their eyes!

The package name should look like [-][[-]]-; If your ${DISTNAME} doesn't look like that, set ${PKGNAME} to something in that format. FreeBSD strives to support the native language of its users. The `<language>' part should be a two letter abbreviation of the natural language defined by ISO-639 if the port is specific to a certain language. Examples are `ja' for Japanese, `ru' for Russian, `vi' for Vietnamese, `zh' for Chinese, `ko' for Korean and `de' for German. The `<name>' part should be all lowercases, except for a really large package (with lots of programs in it). Things like XFree86 (yes there really is a port of it, check it out) and ImageMagick fall into this category. Otherwise, convert the name (or at least the first letter) to lowercase. If the capital letters are important to the name (for example, with one-letter names like R or V) you may use capital letters at your discretion. There is a tradition of naming Perl 5 modules by prepending `p5-' and converting the double-colon separator to a hyphen; for example, the `Data::Dumper' module becomes `p5-Data-Dumper'. If the software in question has numbers, hyphens, or underscores in its name, you may include them as well (like `kinput2'). If the port can be built with different (usually part of the directory name in a family of ports), the `<compiled.specifics>' part should state the compiled-in defaults (the hyphen is optional). Examples are papersize and font units. The version string should be a period-separated list of integers and single lowercase alphabetics. The only exception is the string `pl' (meaning `patchlevel'), which can be used only when there are no major and minor version numbers in the software.

Here are some (real) examples on how to convert a ${DISTNAME} into a suitable ${PKGNAME}: DISTNAME PKGNAME Reason mule-2.2.2 mule-2.2.2 no prob at all XFree86-3.1.2 XFree86-3.1.2 ditto EmiClock-1.0.2 emiclock-1.0.2 no uppercase names for single programs gmod1.4 gmod-1.4 need hyphen after `' xmris.4.02 xmris-4.02 ditto rdist-1.3alpha rdist-1.3a no strings like `alpha' allowed es-0.9-beta1 es-0.9b1 ditto v3.3beta021.src tiff-3.3 what the heck was that anyway? ;) tvtwm tvtwm-pl11 version string always required piewm piewm-1.0 ditto xvgr-2.10pl1 xvgr-2.10.1 `pl' allowed only when no maj/minor numbers gawk-2.15.6 ja-gawk-2.15.6 Japanese language version psutils-1.13 psutils-letter-1.13 papersize hardcoded at package build time pkfonts pkfonts300-1.0 package for 300dpi fonts

If there is absolutely no trace of version information in the original source and it is unlikely that the original author will ever release another version, just set the version string to `1.0' (like the piewm example above). Otherwise, ask the original author or use the date string (`yy.mm.dd') as the version. Categories

As you already know, ports are classified in several categories. But for this to work, it is important that porters and users understand what each category is and how we decide what to put in each category. Current list of categories

First, this is the current list of port categories. Those marked with an asterisk (pkg/COMMENT file in that subdirectory (e.g., archivers/pkg/COMMENT). Ports to support the AfterStep window manager. Archiving tools. Astronomical ports. Sound support. Benchmarking utilities. Biology-related software. Computer aided design tools. Chinese language support. Communication software. Mostly software to talk to your serial port. Character code converters. Databases. Things that used to be on the desktop before computers were invented. Development utilities. Do not put libraries here just because they are libraries -- unless they truly don't belong to anywhere else, they shouldn't be in this category. General editors. Specialized editors go in the section for those tools (e.g., a mathematical-formula editor will go in Emacs-lisp ports. Emulators for other operating systems. Terminal emulators do Games. German language support. Graphics utilities. Japanese language support. Ports that form the K Desktop Environment (kde). Korean language support. Programming languages. Mail software. Numerical computation software and other utilities for mathematics. MBone applications. Miscellaneous utilities -- basically things that doesn't belong to anywhere else. This is the only category that should not appear with any other non-virtual category. If you have Miscellaneous networking software. USENET news software. Ports from the OffiX suite. Software support for the 3Com Palm(tm) series. Ports that require perl version 5 to run. Various programs from Plan9. Printing software. Desktop publishing tools (previewers, etc.) belong here too. Software written in python. Russian language support. Security utilities. Command line shells. System utilities. Ports that use tcl version 7.5 to run. Ports that use tcl version 7.6 to run. Ports that use tcl version 8.0 to run. Ports that use tcl version 8.1 to run. Text processing utilities. It does not include desktop publishing tools, which go to Ports that use tk version 4.1 to run. Ports that use tk version 4.2 to run. Ports that use tk version 8.0 to run. Ports that use tk version 8.1 to run. Vietnamese language support. Ports to support the WindowMaker window manager. Software related to the World Wide Web. HTML language support belong here too. The X window system and friends. This category is only for software that directly support the window system. Do not put regular X applications here. If your port is an X application, define X11 clocks. X11 file managers. X11 fonts and font utilities. X11 toolkits. X11 window managers. Choosing the right category

As many of the categories overlap, you often have to choose which of the categories should be the `primary' category of your port. There are several rules that govern this issue. Here is the list of priorities, in decreasing order of precedence. Language specific categories always come first. For example, if your port installs Japanese X11 fonts, then your japanese x11-fonts'. Specific categories win over less-specific ones. For instance, an HTML editor should be listed as `www editors', not the other way around. Also, you don't need to list If your port truly doesn't belong to anywhere else, put it in

If you are not sure about the category, please put a comment to that effect in your Changes to this document and the ports system

If you maintain a lot of ports, you should consider following the &a.ports;. Important changes to the way ports work will be announced there. You can always find more detailed information on the latest changes by looking at . That is It, Folks!

Boy, this sure was a long tutorial, wasn't it? Thanks for following us to here, really.

Well, now that you know how to do a port, let us go at it and convert everything in the world into ports! That is the easiest way to start contributing to the FreeBSD Project! :)