diff --git a/sys/kern/subr_clockcalib.c b/sys/kern/subr_clockcalib.c
index 2d6a8c31a9b9..3e93dd0869bf 100644
--- a/sys/kern/subr_clockcalib.c
+++ b/sys/kern/subr_clockcalib.c
@@ -1,183 +1,183 @@
/*-
* Copyright (c) 2022 Colin Percival
* All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
* are met:
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
* ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
* FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
* DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
* OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
* HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
* LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
* OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
* SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
#include
__FBSDID("$FreeBSD$");
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
/**
* clockcalib(clk, clkname):
* Return the frequency of the provided timer, as calibrated against the
* current best-available timecounter.
*/
uint64_t
clockcalib(uint64_t (*clk)(void), const char *clkname)
{
struct timecounter *tc = atomic_load_ptr(&timecounter);
uint64_t clk0, clk1, clk_delay, n, passes = 0;
uint64_t t0, t1, tadj, tlast;
double mu_clk = 0;
double mu_t = 0;
double va_clk = 0;
double va_t = 0;
double cva = 0;
double d1, d2;
double inv_n;
uint64_t freq;
TSENTER();
/*-
* The idea here is to compute a best-fit linear regression between
* the clock we're calibrating and the reference clock; the slope of
* that line multiplied by the frequency of the reference clock gives
* us the frequency we're looking for.
*
* To do this, we calculate the
* (a) mean of the target clock measurements,
* (b) variance of the target clock measurements,
* (c) mean of the reference clock measurements,
* (d) variance of the reference clock measurements, and
* (e) covariance of the target clock and reference clock measurements
* on an ongoing basis, updating all five values after each new data
* point arrives, stopping when we're confident that we've accurately
* measured the target clock frequency.
*
* Given those five values, the important formulas to remember from
* introductory statistics are:
* 1. slope of regression line = covariance(x, y) / variance(x)
* 2. (relative uncertainty in slope)^2 =
* (variance(x) * variance(y) - covariance(x, y)^2)
* ------------------------------------------------
* covariance(x, y)^2 * (N - 2)
*
* We adjust the second formula slightly, adding a term to each of
* the variance values to reflect the measurement quantization.
*
* Finally, we need to determine when to stop gathering data. We
* can't simply stop as soon as the computed uncertainty estimate
* is below our threshold; this would make us overconfident since it
* would introduce a multiple-comparisons problem (cf. sequential
* analysis in clinical trials). Instead, we stop with N data points
* if the estimated uncertainty of the first k data points meets our
* target for all N/2 < k <= N; this is not theoretically optimal,
* but in practice works well enough.
*/
/*
* Initial values for clocks; we'll subtract these off from values
* we measure later in order to reduce floating-point rounding errors.
* We keep track of an adjustment for values read from the reference
* timecounter, since it can wrap.
*/
clk0 = clk();
t0 = tc->tc_get_timecount(tc) & tc->tc_counter_mask;
tadj = 0;
tlast = t0;
/* Loop until we give up or decide that we're calibrated. */
for (n = 1; ; n++) {
/* Get a new data point. */
clk1 = clk() - clk0;
t1 = tc->tc_get_timecount(tc) & tc->tc_counter_mask;
while (t1 + tadj < tlast)
- tadj += tc->tc_counter_mask + 1;
+ tadj += (uint64_t)tc->tc_counter_mask + 1;
tlast = t1 + tadj;
t1 += tadj - t0;
/* If we spent too long, bail. */
if (t1 > tc->tc_frequency) {
printf("Statistical %s calibration failed! "
"Clocks might be ticking at variable rates.\n",
clkname);
printf("Falling back to slow %s calibration.\n",
clkname);
freq = (double)(tc->tc_frequency) * clk1 / t1;
break;
}
/* Precompute to save on divisions later. */
inv_n = 1.0 / n;
/* Update mean and variance of recorded TSC values. */
d1 = clk1 - mu_clk;
mu_clk += d1 * inv_n;
d2 = d1 * (clk1 - mu_clk);
va_clk += (d2 - va_clk) * inv_n;
/* Update mean and variance of recorded time values. */
d1 = t1 - mu_t;
mu_t += d1 * inv_n;
d2 = d1 * (t1 - mu_t);
va_t += (d2 - va_t) * inv_n;
/* Update covariance. */
d2 = d1 * (clk1 - mu_clk);
cva += (d2 - cva) * inv_n;
/*
* Count low-uncertainty iterations. This is a rearrangement
* of "relative uncertainty < 1 PPM" avoiding division.
*/
#define TSC_PPM_UNCERTAINTY 1
#define TSC_UNCERTAINTY TSC_PPM_UNCERTAINTY * 0.000001
#define TSC_UNCERTAINTY_SQR TSC_UNCERTAINTY * TSC_UNCERTAINTY
if (TSC_UNCERTAINTY_SQR * (n - 2) * cva * cva >
(va_t + 4) * (va_clk + 4) - cva * cva)
passes++;
else
passes = 0;
/* Break if we're consistently certain. */
if (passes * 2 > n) {
freq = (double)(tc->tc_frequency) * cva / va_t;
if (bootverbose)
printf("Statistical %s calibration took"
" %lu us and %lu data points\n",
clkname, (unsigned long)(t1 *
1000000.0 / tc->tc_frequency),
(unsigned long)n);
break;
}
/*
* Add variable delay to avoid theoretical risk of aliasing
* resulting from this loop synchronizing with the frequency
* of the reference clock. On the nth iteration, we spend
* O(1 / n) time here -- long enough to avoid aliasing, but
* short enough to be insignificant as n grows.
*/
clk_delay = clk() + (clk() - clk0) / (n * n);
while (clk() < clk_delay)
cpu_spinwait(); /* Do nothing. */
}
TSEXIT();
return (freq);
}